Modern Baptists: A Novel (Voices of the South)
The latter confession, which had been drawn up by John Owen and Thomas Goodwin, was a Congregational- ist revision of the Westminster Confession. This new Baptist confession did not reproduce these confessions holus-bolus but made changes here and there, especially with regard to such obvious topics as baptism and church government. In time this confession became the most inluential of all Bap- tist confessions of faith.
The Hymn-Singing Controversy The unity experienced at the Particular Baptist assembly of proved short-lived due to a dispute over the singing of hymns in corpo- rate worship gatherings. Nevertheless, congre- gational hymn-singing provoked a bitter controversy among London Particular Baptists in the s. The singing Knollys had in mind was apparently that performed by a solo voice and not congregational singing.
The Maze Pond Church originated as a split from the Horselydown Baptist Church in Southwark, where Benjamin Keach, prob- ably the most signiicant Baptist theologian of the late seventeenth century, was an ardent advocate of hymn-singing.
Keach irst introduced congrega- tional hymns at Horselydown around He cited the angelic hosts in heaven singing praises to God and explicit commands in the New Testament that urged this practice on believers, including Ephesians , Colossians , and James In the course of the hymn-singing controversy, Marlow wrote no fewer than eleven books that dealt with the issue.
The heat gener- ated by the controversy may be discerned to some degree by the terms that the two sides tossed at each other. But Marlow could give as good as he got. These acerbic remarks by both sides in the debate indicate that the division over hymn-singing was no trivial matter. Defending the propriety of congregational hymn-singing naturally led to the production of various hymnals.
Thy Thorns their Gems out-vie. And me thy Beauty shew.
In a poem of dedication that he placed before his hymns, Stennett speciied the kindling of devotion to Christ as a central goal of his hymns: Happy! Stennett was also renowned as a preacher. A number of his published ser- mons dealt with political issues, such as one celebrating the English victory over the French at the Battle of Blenheim , which especially pleased the monarch, Queen Anne, or one rejoicing in the union of England and Scotland It says much for the general respect in which he was held that an Anglican prelate once remarked that if Stennett were willing to relin- quish his Baptist convictions and join the Established Church, no post within that church would be beyond his merit.
Pennepack Baptist Church est.
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Its roots go back to Thomas Dungan, whose family was among the irst settlers in Newport, Rhode Island. Elias Keach had come to America posing as a Baptist minister, though he was not really a Christian. While preaching to the people who would form Pennepack Baptist Church, however, he came under conviction of sin and was converted by his own sermon! This association became the pattern for numerous other Particular Baptist associations, including the Charleston Association that we will look at in the next chapter. In , the Philadelphia Association adopted the Second London Confession of Faith as its confessional standard, though two chapters were added: chapters 23 and 31 on the necessity of congregational singing and the imposition of hands respectively, both of which can be traced back to personal convictions of Elias Keach.
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The congregation migrated to Charleston under the pastoral leadership of the Particular Bap- tist William Screven in , relocating from Kittery, Maine, where the church had been constituted fourteen years earlier. At the time of this relo- cation, Screven was sixty-seven.
Traditionally, the reason ascribed to such a remarkable move was persecution. But closer examination of the historical record reveals that the worst days of persecution in Massachusetts, which we noted in the previous chapter, were over. By the s, Baptists in Bos- ton were worshipping freely in a wooden meetinghouse in north Boston, at the corner of Salem and Stillman Streets. Raids by the members of the Wabanaki Confederacy, Native American allies of the French, made it dangerous even to attend church meetings.
The Kittery congregation found both General and Particular Baptists in Charleston when they arrived, who joined with the Maine congregation to form First Baptist Church. Within three years, they had acquired land at 61—63 Church Street, the site of the present sanctuary, from General Baptist William Elliott, who hailed from England. Over the next few years, the work prospered so that by , of a population of 4, in and around Charles- ton, an estimated 10 percent were Baptist. First Baptist herself grew to about ninety members in this year.
But an equally great challenge to this congregation proved to be their accommodation to the evils of slavery. British involvement in the slave trade was primarily linked to their desire to encourage rapid economic development of their colonies in the New World. The key event that drew Britain into this pernicious trade was the introduction of sugar plantations to the West Indies.
The growing and harvesting of sugar required prodigious numbers of workers, and Britain soon followed the example of the Spanish and Portuguese in manning their sugar plantations with armies of African slaves. In the inal decades of the eighteenth century, the British engaged in transporting around 45, slaves a year from the West African coast to the Caribbean and the American South. Throughout their rapacious slave-trading history, the British were responsi- ble for transporting some three million enslaved Africans to the New World, including port cities such as Charleston.
A letter written by a group of English Baptists to First Baptist Charleston in displays the way in which Baptists accommodated themselves to the slave trade and the institution of slavery. If the owner did not do so, he forfeited ownership of the slave to the irst white informer. While few South Carolina slave own- ers actually carried out this hideous and cruel punishment, one did, a mem- ber of the Charleston church. Some of his co-religionists were appalled by what he had done, and they wrote to South Moulton Baptist Church in Dev- onshire, England, for advice on how to deal with the man.
To these Baptists, the particular South Carolina law under consideration appeared to have been enacted with good ends in view. The representatives at this gathering supported the advice of the South Moulton Church. Moreover, the South Moulton Church allowed British stereotypical images of Africans to shape their reading of Scripture. This attitude bore especially bitter fruit in Baptist life in the American South.
Craven, and R. Marshall Blalock. Davies, Hywel M. Transatlantic Brethren: Rev. Samuel Jones — and His Friends. Baptists in Wales, Pennsylvania, and Beyond, chapter 1. Essick, John Inscore. Gardner, Robert G. Hanson Brian L. Monographs in Baptist History. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, Kreitzer, Larry J. William Kiffen and His World, 3 vols. MacDonald, Murdina D.
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How can the life of Abraham Cheare serve as a model for Christian life today? Outline the situation around the Venner revolt and the role Baptists played in the controversy. Describe the sufferings of Baptists in the late seventeenth and early eigh- teenth centuries. Give two speciic examples. Why is the study of persecu- tion of believers in the past especially necessary for the modern church?
How did William Kiffen inluence Baptist life and thought during the seventeenth century? What does his story tell you about the importance of leadership in the church? Summarize the conlict between Bunyan and Kiffen. What side would you take in their disagreement?
Compare and contrast the major Baptist confessions of faith that were written during the seventeenth century. Are confessions like these import- ant for Baptists today? What led to the end of Particular Baptist unity in the late s? Describe the situation. What issues threaten Baptist unity today?
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How did the Baptist understanding of slavery in Britain inluence the Baptist position in America? This assertion impacted a number of Christian communities. Among the Baptists the English General Baptists were decimated as they abandoned key Christian verities such as the Trin- ity and the deity of Christ. But the Age of Reason was also a time when some Protestant denominations, especially in the English-speaking world, experienced not only renewal but also amazing growth.
The English Par- ticular Baptists, after a long season of decline, enjoyed a time of renewal; and in America revival was instrumental in creating an entire new body of Baptists, the Separate Baptists, as well as revitalizing sections of the older Baptist community. A letter Joseph Pettit, pastor of the Cork Baptist Church, wrote in to the Boston Baptist minister Elisha Callendar, who had requested information about the Irish Baptists, indicates a small Baptist association of nine churches, with the three largest in Dublin, Cork, and Waterford.
In the course of the eighteenth century, a good number of these Baptist causes either disappeared altogether or drifted off into various forms of heterodoxy. Yet this story of decline can be easily exaggerated. Of ninety-two men and women whose means of livelihood are identiied on a list from Col- chester Baptist Church, for example, thirty-eight were farmers, thirty-two were cloth workers, ive were shoe- makers, two were carpenters, two were thatchers, and one was a blacksmith—a Deborah Rudkin of Dedham.
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The Particular Baptist congregation in Liverpool had twenty-two members in with only one member who had any inan- cial resources, namely, a certain Roger Fisher, a shipbuilder. At one point he decided to try his hand in business, the woolen trade, but he did not have a head for business and ended up losing a considerable amount of money. Cote Baptist Church, Oxfordshire est. A shortage of inances meant that many congregations could not afford to put up their own buildings even though they were free to do so after the end of state persecution in The Particular Baptists in the village of Smarden, Kent, met for over ifty years in the farmhouse and buildings of the Gilham family before erecting a chapel in The members of Horsham General Baptist Church, where the unorthodox Matthew Caffyn was pastor, met in farmhouses for the best part of sixty-ive years before building a meetinghouse in either or The Age of Reason and Revival 65 shielding them from persecution.
Baptist chapels from the eighteenth century were generally plain buildings from the outside.